SOUTH ASIAN JOURNAL OF POPULATION AND HEALTH; Vol - 3, No - 2

FERTILITY AND ITS PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS IN OMAN

Written by:M. MAZHARUL ISLAM AND ATSU S. S. DORVLO

Oman is passing through a crucial phase of social, economic and demographic transition. This paper provides critical review of the fertility levels and trends in Oman and examines that role of the major proximate determinants of fertility on declining trends in fertility in Oman. The analysis reveals that the recent surveys recorded dramatic fall in the level of fertility in recent years in Oman. Fertility has declined from a very high rate of 8.6 births per women in 1988 to 5.1 births per woman in 2000, that is, a decline of three and a half births per woman or a decline of 41 percent of total fertility over a period of twelve years. However, Omani women still prefer larger family (6.4 children) than they actually have. As the desired family size is still very high and the age at marriage is rising, couples tend to achieve their desired number of children by continuing fertility until the end of the reproductive period. The average birth interval in Oman is about two years (25 months). The delay in childbearing through increase in age at marriage for women and spacing births through increased use in contraception among younger women are the most instrumental factor of observed decline in fertility in Oman. The analysis of the major proximate determinants of fertility suggest that until recent years, lactational infecundability closely followed by marriage pattern plays the most prominent part in reducing natural fertility and contraception has the next important fertility inhibiting effect.

CAUSES OF EARLY NEONATAL, LATE NEONATAL AND POSTNATAL DEATHS IN BANGLADESH: A POLYTOMOUS LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Written by:WASIMUL BARI, SHAMAL CHANDRA KARMAKER, SAYEMA SHARMIN and BEGUM ZAINAB

Knowledge of Infant and child mortality situations is of great importance for planning population and health policies of a country. Employing the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) data, the present study made an attempt to examine the link between several socio-economic, demographic and health care related factors and infant death during early, late and postnatal periods utilizing polytomous logistic regression. It is depicted in the present study that most of the infant deaths which occur during first moth of life are related to health care and delivery complications related factors. It is argued in the present study that if the pregnant women are encouraged to take more antenatal care, it may help them to identify any complication which they might face during delivery and can be transferred to the hospital immediately in the case of any emergency. This might help reducing a significant number of child deaths during infancy particularly those occurring during their early days of life.

FERTILITY DIFFERENTIALS IN BANGLADESH

Written by:MD. ISLAM UDDIN and MD. ARIF SATTAR

The present analysis is based on Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey of 2007. The analytical results show that the females of Urban and Rural want more children if they do not have sufficient number of living sons. The average number of children ever born of urban and rural respondents is 2.51 and 2.84 respectively. However, the mean number of children ever born decline decline from 3.09 (urban) in 1993 to 2.51 (urban) in 2007 and from 3.53 (rural) in 1993 to 2.84 (rural) in 2007. The number of children ever born of urban and rural respondents decrease with the increase in age at marriage, respondent's education, husband's education and wealth index but the number of children ever born of urban and rural respondents increase with the increase in respondent's age. We observed that the average number of children ever born of urban and rural respondents is less than contraceptive user. Urban and Rural respondent's education and region have significant impact on number of children ever born.

CAUSES OF VACCINE-PREVENTABLE CHILDHOOD DISEASES IN DHAKA CITY SLUMS, BANGLADESH

Written by:M. ZAKIR HOSSAIN, N. AFROZ and MD. GOLAM RABBANI

The main goal of this article is to identify the important factors and causes that affecting child morbidity, especially, major life-threatening vaccine-preventable childhood diseases in the urban slum areas. In Bangladesh, the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) provides protection against Diphtheria. Hepatitis B. Measles, Whooping Cough, Polio, Tetanus and Tuberculosis. From the analysis it is originated that most of the slum dwellers are illiterate as a result their children suffer mostly life-threatening childhood diseases. Family income is found to be significantly associated with child morbidity and the children who belong to lower income group have higher percentage of suffering from major vaccine-preventable diseases. Besides, type of drinking water shows significant relationship with child morbidity and it is observed that safe water reduces child morbidity. Moreover, the children, who are vaccinated as well as visited hospital regularly, have lower percentage of suffering from major life-threatening vaccine-preventable childhood diseases than that of their counterparts.

DIETARY PATTERN OF FISHERMAN IN BANGLADESH

Written by:ABDULLAH AL-AMIN, ILA ISMAIL, ALI ABBAS MOHAMMED KURSHED, BENAJIR SHAMS and MD. AMINUL HAQUE BHUYAN

The study was conducted during 2010 among 121 selected households and the empirical data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaire from in a fishing community of the village named Dhanki Para of Katiadi Upazilla in Kishoregonj district of Bangladesh. Among 121 households, 52% were fishermen, 30% were farmers, 7% were businessmen, 5% were day laborers, 3% were in service and also there were 3% rickshaw pullers. Again, 29% family earned 2000-2999 taka, about 25% family earned 3000-3999 taka, 20.7% family earned 400-4999 taka and 14.1% family earned more than 5000 taka. In the selected fishing community about 100% household used to eat rice regularly, and 80% of them eat vegetable respectively. In the study per capita food consumption in fisherman was 843.91g and 859.95g in farmer. A significant difference was found in the intake of sugar (p-0.019), pulse and nuts (p=0.046), fruits (p=0.039), fishes (p=0.045), and milk and milk products (p=0.009) among fisherman and farmer. Energy intake was found different between fisherman and farmer in the selected community (p=0.043) and also carbohydrate intake of them had found a significance difference (p=0.039). Among the fishermen and farmers there was a significance difference of Zine (p=0.004) and Thiamin intake (p=0.009).

TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR OF MARRIED ADOLESCENTS IN RURAL BANGLADESH

Written by:ASHIM KUMAR SAHA, MD. ZILLUR RAHMAN SHABUZ, A. R. M. RUKUN UDDIN and MD. GOLAM RABBANI

In recent demographic research adolescent reproductive health problem and their utilization of health care services have become a major topic among both the developed and developing nations. Considering its importance, and attempt has been made in this study to investigate the association of utilization of health care facilities during pregnancy period with several socio-economic and demographic characteristics of adolescent married women in the rural areas of Bangladesh. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Maternal and Maternal Health Services Survey (BMMS) 2001. In case of life threatening complication during the whole pregnancy period, only 60.8 percent of the total respondents utilize health care facilities available in that period. Majority respondents seek treatment from doctor, nurse/midwife and unqualified private doctor. The analysis showed that the number of pregnancies prior to the index pregnancy and desired pregnancies are significantly associated with the utilization of health care services. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses of the data confirmed that education had a significant and positive impact on the utilization of health care services. Respondents who had listened radio on regular basis received more treatment from professional health services provider such as doctor than their counterparts. Also watching television was a significant predictor of respondents utilization of health care services.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRENATAL CARE AND INFANT MORTALITY: EVIDENCE FROM BANGLADESH DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY

Written by:MD. ABDUS SALAM AKANDA

Despite improvements in public health in recent decades, levels of infant and child mortality remain unacceptably high, particularly in developing countries where primary healthcare services including prenatal care services are not universally available. Using information on 5.327 childbirths in five years preceding the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, this study examined the relationship between receiving prenatal care during pregnancy and infant mortality using multivariate survival analysis. The results are presented in hazard rations (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results indicate that children of mothers who did not receive prenatal care during pregnancy were more than twice as likely to die during infancy as children whose mothers received prenatal care during pregnancy (HR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.76, 3.24) independent of child's sex, delivery assistance, birth order, mother's age at child birth, nutritional status, education level, household living conditions, and other factors. Children born to older mothers living in households without safe drinking water were at an increased risk. The study concludes that prenatal care is strongly negatively associated with infant mortality in Bangladesh independent of other risk factors. The results suggest that improving prenatal care services at the community level is key to improving child survival in Bangladesh.

MOTHERS' KAP AND GENDER BIAS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN DHAKA CITY

Written by:SHAJADA AKTER KHANAM, ALI ABBAS MOHAMMAD KURSHED and MD. AMINUL HAQUE BHUYAN

A cross sectional study was carried out among 384 mother-children pairs to understand the effects of mother's KAP on gender bias. Data were collected from ten government primary schools under four thanas of Dhaka city corporation areas. All respondents were mothers. As per study objective only those mothers were included in the study who had at least two children (both son and daughter). Majority (51.8%) of respondent's age were between 30-34 years. Amongst them a considerable number of mothers were illiterate (43.0%). Only 9.0 percent respondent mothers were graduates, whereas, 10.7 percent and 18.5 percent were higher secondary and secondary level educated. Family size of households indicated that approximately fifty percent households (47.8%) consist of 5 to 6members and one third of households (33.6%) consist of 3 to 4 members where only 5.2 percent families consist of more than eight members. The study showed that one-forth (23.2%) of the fathers were illiterate and 15.1 percent were primary level educated. On the other hand, 29.9 15.1 and 16.7 percent were secondary, higher secondary and graduate respectively. Only 17.4 percent respondent mother were occupied in different works and the majority of the respondent mothers (82.6%) were housewives. About fifty percent (46.0%) of household heads were occupied in various government and non government services. Most of the respondent mother (62.5%) opined that boys and girls play equal role in the society and they thought that there are no difference between boys and girls and about one-third (31.3%) of respondent mothers' thought that both the son and the daughter are needed the light of education. Maximum number (76%) of the girl children worked in different types of household activities, on the other hand, only 19.5 percent of boys helped in household activities. Correlations between different socio-economic conditions and knowledge on gender bias indicated that mothers' knowledge on sex bias was strongly correlated with mothers' education and occupation. It is also seen that occupation of the household heads was significantly correlated with mothers' knowledge on gender bias. Equal importance of sending children to schools was correlated with (P<0.05) educational qualification of household heads but not significant to their occupation(P>0.05). Equal importance of sending children to schools was strongly correlated with mothers' education than mothers' occupation. On the response of boys and girls need equal foods was strongly correlated with both parents' educational qualification and mothers' occupation, but it was insignificant (p>0.05) to the occupation of household heads.

WOMEN'S DECISION-MAKING AUTONOMY AND REPRODUCTIVE PREFERENCES IN BANGLADESH

Written by:DHANESWAR CHANDRO SARKAR, MD. ISLAM UDDIN and MOHAMMAD ARIF SATTAR

The importance of women's decision-making autonomy has recently emerged as a key factor in influencing reproductive preferences and demand for family planning in developing countries. In this study, the effect of direct indicators of women's decision-making autonomy on fertility preferences and ever-use of modern contraception is examined using logistic regression models with and without proxy indicators. The results provide evidence that different dimensions of women's autonomy influence the outcome variables differently in terms of magnitude and statistical significance. Particularly, women's final say in decisions regarding day-to-day household purchases and spousal communication about family planning are influential predictors of fertility preferences and ever-use of modern family planning methods. At the same time, results show that the effects of women's education on fertility preferences are not always significant although it has significant roles in affecting women's decision-making autonomy as well as on fertility preferences and ever use of contraception. Thus, a complete explanation of the relationship between women's autonomy and reproductive preferences must recognize the effects of both proxy and direct indicators of women's autonomy. Interventions are needed to improve women's decision-making autonomy and strengthen their negotiating capacity for family planning use if an increased desire to limit fertility is to be attained.

URBANISATION AND CRIME IN BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON DHAKA CITY

Written by:MD. OMAR FARUK and MD. ISHTIAQ AHMED TALUKDER

This study examines the spatial variability in the distribution of crime specially the relationship among crime and urbanisation. Due to advent of modern technologies and globalisation the urbanisation process has been boosted in Dhaka city. The main objectives of the study were to analyze the interrelationship of urbanization and crime, to find out the characteristics of victim of urban crime in Dhaka city and to understand the spatial characteristics of urban crime. It has been tried to identify the impact of rapid growth of urbanisation and the relationship of rising crime rate and urban growth in Dhaka city. Exploratory research method has been applied for the study. The study was conducted on the people who were at least 20 years old among three police district: Mohammadpur, Pallabi and Uttara. It has been observed that most of the women who were in between 20 to 30 years old were unmarried. It has been found that evening period is more vulnerable to crime, as it gets darker probability increases. The respondents' life has been hampered more or less by the fear of crime and they are fairly worried about being victim of crime. Mobile phone theft has become one of the greatest problems to the people. In last one year a majority of the respondents have become victims of urban crimes. Maximum of the respondent thinks that adult women become more victim of crime than the others and the crime status has increased a little bit in the city in last two years. Slum areas are more crime prone than the higher income areas, as a result it give shelter for a new crime to emerge at the city. According to maximum of the respondents crime rates can be minimized through the effective implementation of existing laws and by the effectiveness of the law enforcing agencies. Civil society participation is very much needed as well government intervention in the elimination of rising crime rate in Dhaka city.